PIDP 3100

Course # 3100

Learning Theory Essay

In psychology and education, learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing or making changes in one’s knowledge, skills, values and world views (Illeris, 2000). A learning theory is an attempt to describe how people and animals learn thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. Behaviorist, Humanist, Cognitivist, Constructivist Orientation, and Social Cognitivist all contribute to our current understanding of adult learning (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007).

In this essay I will explain the Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive development. I will highlight key components of the theory, explain the roles of the learner and instructor, and will give classroom examples.

Cognitive Development

Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development and memory. Cognitive development has been considered by several investigators, such as Piaget (1959), Vygotsky (1978), Bandura (1977), Rogoff (1990), and Wood (1998). “The human mind”, according to a cognitivist “is not simply a passive exchange-terminal system where the stimuli arrive and the appropriate response leaves. Rather, the thinking person interprets sensation and give meaning to the events that I impinge upon his consciousness” (Grippin & Peters, 1984, p.76). Ausubel (1967) proposed a theory of meaningful learning as that learning which can connect with concepts already in a person’s cognitive structure. “This cognitive structure is made up of sets of ideas that are organized hierarchically and by theme” (Driscoll, 2005, p.117).

Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who was born on November 17, 1896 in Orsha, a part of what was once known as the Russian Empire. Lev Vygotsky made some of the most significant contributions to theories of child development, especially in the area of cognitive development which focused on the role of culture in the development of higher mental functions. This theory centered on the ideas that social interaction and imaginative play are large contributors to the process of cognitive development in children (Farr, 2014). Vygotsky believed children’s thinking is affected by their knowledge of the social community (which is learnt from either technical or psychological cultural tools). Vygotsky (1978) defined intelligence as “the capacity to learn from instruction”, which emphasizes the fact there is a requirement for a more knowledgeable other person or ‘teacher’.  Lev Vygotsky has defined this theory in different contexts:

  • Zone of Proximal development and Scaffolding
  • Language Development

Zone of Proximal development and Scaffolding

Zone of proximal development is a key feature of his theory. This is commonly referred as ZPD. He proposed the idea of “Zone of proximal development and Scaffolding” in a child’s development. The way this works is by recognizing that there are some things a child cannot do independently and they would be able to do it with the assistance of someone else. Vygotsky (1978) explained there are two levels of attainment for the Zone of Proximal development:

  • Level 1- the ‘present level of development’. This describes what the child is capable of doing without any help from others.
  • Level 2- the ‘potential level of development’. This means what the child could potentially be capable of with help from other people or ‘teachers’.

The gap between level 1 and 2 (the present and potential development) is what Vygotsky described as the zone of proximal development. He believed that children can learn more from those individuals that already have more knowledge than them. However, the knowledge should be based on the child’s level. When a child does attain their potential, this shift occurs and the child can continue learning more complex, higher level material (Eddy, 2010). Vygotsky particularly viewed adults, rather than peers, as key to this relationship, perhaps because adults are more likely to be truly competent in the task, and thus less likely to cause regression rather than progression in the collaboration (Tudge and Winterhoff, 1993). Another important feature of this theory is scaffolding.

Scaffolding is directly related to ZPD in that it is the support mechanism that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her ZPD. Typically, this process is completed by a more competent individual supporting the learning of a less competent individual. For example: there could be teacher assisting a student, or a higher level peer assisting a younger level peer. This progression of different levels of help is called scaffolding. Scaffolding has also been interpreted as a mechanism by which sequential ZPD’s are used to achieve a learning outcome beyond a child’s immediate potential, and thus the specific learning activities change as the student competence towards the ultimate task grow (Biggs and Moore,1993).

Language Development

Vygotsky was particularly interested in the role of language in cognitive development. He believed that language is linked to consciousness and that it is a part of human development. Vygotsky viewed language as man’s greatest tool, a means for communicating with the outside world (McLeod, 2007).  According to Vygotsky (1978) language plays 2 critical roles in cognitive development:

  • It is the main means by which adults transmit information to children.
  • Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation.

Vygotsky (1978) differentiates between three forms of language:

  1. Social speech
  2. Private speech
  • Inner speech

Social speech: For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age (McLeod, 2007). He referred to it as the external communication that people use to talk with other people, and he believed that this form of language was typical in children from the age of two (Farr, 2014). At this point speech and thought become independent: thought becomes verbal, speech becomes representational. When this happens, children’s monologues internalized to become inner speech. The internalization of language is important as it drives cognitive development (McLeod, 2014).

Private speech: Vygotsky considered private speech as the transition point between social and inner speech, the moment in development where language and thought unite to constitute verbal thinking (McLeod, 2014). He referred to it as the internal communication that a person directs to themselves. It serves an intellectual function, and it is typical in children from the age of three (McLeod, 2014). Private speech is “typically defined, in contrast to social speech, as speech addressed to the self (not to others) for the purpose of self-regulation (rather than communication)” (Diaz, 1992, p. 62). Vygotsky viewed private speech as: “a revolution in development which is triggered when preverbal thought and pre-intellectual language come together to create fundamentally new forms of mental functioning” (Fernyhough & Fradely, 2005:p.1).

Inner speech: Vygotsky believed that this is what happens when private speech diminishes in its audibility until it becomes a self-regulating function. He believed this was typical in children from the age of seven (Farr, 2014). “Inner speech is not the interior aspect of external speech-it is a function in itself. It still remains speech that is thought connected with words. But while in external speech thought is embodied in words, in inner speech words die as they bring forth thought. Inner speech is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings” (Vygotsky, 1962:p. 149).

Why I chose this theory of learning

While many of the learning theories offer valuable insights, I have embraced Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. I found that this theory is very simple and clear. Vygotsky emphasizes the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive growth. Another reason I chose this theory is because I want to teach higher level students on a more individualized level and Vygotsky’s concepts are used to teach in the classroom setting.  Many contemporary theorists have encouraged educators to use Vygotsky’s ideas, such as guided participation, scaffolding, apprenticeships, and peer interaction in promoting cognitive development (Ormrod, 39). I will use this theory to encourage self talk, provide scaffolding, provide a cognitive apprenticeship, and encourage peer interaction. In this way this theory will helpful in my teaching profession.

Roles of Learner and Instructor

I believe that Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development is important for learners

because it promotes higher levels of thinking, as well as problem solving skills. Self talk is a vital part of the learning process. Villegas (2003) mentioned that learners can encourage self talk when learning new vocabulary words, phrases, etc.; Repetition is one of the best learning strategies, and self-talk encourages it. This provides them with better self-esteem and self-worth and makes them more self-confident (Villegas, 2003). Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. Farr (2014) explains that imaginative play helps to develop their thinking skills as well as their use of language. This often engages children in pretend role playing activities and allows them to create a story as well as the characters involved in the story. The benefits of student-centered teaching, whereby the student can efficiently progress within their potential towards a learning outcome; that is constructing knowledge through social interaction (Tudge and Winterhoff, 1993).Teachers are the ones who will take a vital role in progressing future generations. Tudge and Winterhoff (1993) also mention that Vygotsky’s ideas suggest that student-teacher relationships are of prime importance in generating and facilitating new ideas, perspectives, and cognitive strategies. Teachers can effectively support the children to do the actual task given by him or her. Activities can be used to evaluate how a student is progressing and the teacher can create learning objectives to fit the students learning gaps. The most important application an educator can put into place from Vygotsky’s theory is his concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding. This allows the teacher to realize what a child can do if they only had assistance. Learners can do more difficult tasks with the help of a teacher. The different ways a teacher can provide scaffolding for his or her students are working with students to develop plans for dealing with new tasks and also demonstrating proper performance of the task that can be easily imitated (Villegas, 2003). A teacher can accomplish complex tasks that he or she cannot do independently and can then provide the necessary scaffolding to help a child develop the skill on their own (Villegas, 2003). Vygotsky also mentions the instructional concept of “apprenticeship” in which the teacher helps to structure a task so the student can become successful at it (McLeod, 2007). When teacher and students are working together, students can essentially learn to help their peers out.

Three classroom examples

 Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development is important in the classroom. A contemporary

educational application of Vygotsky’s theory is “reciprocal teaching”, used to improve students ability (McLeod, 2007). Here, I will give three classroom examples of this theory.

Example 1. A young child is playing with a puzzle. He cannot figure out how the various pieces can fit to make the image. His teacher describes how each puzzle piece can fit with other pieces. The teacher offers him encouragement and helps him to put a few pieces together. As the child grasps the concept, the teacher allows the child to complete the task alone. This is an example of interaction influencing the cognitive development of child.

Example 2. Mercer (1994) provided an example of eight pupils in the class were working on computer based task in pairs that was given by their teacher to design and use an ‘overlay’ for the keyboard which would transform it into a ‘concept keyboard’. She supported their activity by going to round to each pair in turn. With each pair she would observe the current state of their progress, draw attention to certain features and use them to raise issues related to the successful completion.

Example 3. Mercer (1994) provided another example of a teacher who is talking with a group of six children aged 9 who were reading together a picture book. The teacher knew that this group included children who had severe problems with reading, and with ‘making sense of books’. Some of them were also very withdrawn, and usually silent in larger class settings (including Terry, the boy who talks most in the transcribed sequence). At the point the sequence begins, they are talking about an illustration in the book in which the hero seems to appear more than once. There has been some disagreement amongst the children about who these figures are meant to represent. The teacher appropriates an issue which has been raised by the children themselves. She asks for their views of the problem, which not only tells her what they but also helps the group share ideas. She notices that Terry may have got an idea from the text which would resolve the issue. After helping the children clarify their Ideas, he recaps the discussion and so tries to provide a firm context based on shared experience within which Terry can offer his ‘clue’. Through being appropriate by the teacher Terry’s discovery is made explicit and legitimized, what he has found becomes part of the shared understanding, ‘the common knowledge ’of the group.


All the learning theories impart the priceless understanding in the field of education. With the brief examine at the given theory of cognitive development . I have discussed that how this theory encouraged me to choose as my learning theory essay. During analyzing the theory, I came to know that children can learn things with the help of their teachers as well as from the skilled partners. Moreover, I came to understand that how language plays an important role in child’s cognitive development.


Biggs, J.B. & Moore, P.J., (1993). Process of learning (3rd ed.), London: Prentice Hall.

Diaz, R.M. (1992). Private speech: From social interaction to self-regulation. Lawrence


Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Farr, T. (2014). Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from vygotskys-theory-of-cognitive-development/

Fernyhough, C., & Fradely, E. (2005). Private speech on an executive task: Relations with task

difficulty and task Performance. Cognitive Development, 20, 103-120.

Grippin, P., & Peters .S. (1984). Learning theory and Leaning outcomes. Lanham, MD:

University Press of America

Illeris, K. (2000). Adult Education in the Perspective of the Learners. (pp. 198). Copenhagen:

Roskilde University Press

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from

Mercer, N. (1994). Neo-Vygotskian theory and classroom education. In B. Stierer & J.Mayben

(Eds.), Language, Literacy, and Learning in Educational Practice: A Reader (pp. 92-109). United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters Ltd.  

Merriam, S. B. & Bierema, L. L. (2014). Adult Learning Linking Theory and Practice (pp. 24-

41). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R .S., & Baumgartner, L. M.(2007). Learning in adulthood (3rd ed.).

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Tudge, J.R.H. & Winterhoff, P.A., (1993). Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura: perspectives on the

relations between the Social world and cognitive development. Human development, 36, 61.

Villegas, R. (2003). Vygotsky’s Theories of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from


Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes.

Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Journal# 1

“There are few educators who would disagree with the principle that lifelong learning is a good thing  but the important questions are about the types of learning that the concept promotes, the life it encourages us to lead, who benefits from this and the nature of the society that it upholds.” (p. 20/21)

Objective:  What you have learned from reflecting on this particular quote? What has caught your attention?

This quote caught my attention because I learned during my early age schooling that ‘learning can never stop’. I also understood the concept of life-long learning through (Delors, 1996) definition,  ‘Life-Long Learning’ may be broadly defined as learning that is pursued throughout life: learning is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places.” He suggests four ‘pillars’ of education for the future: Learning to know, Learning to do, Learning to live together, and with others, and Learning to be. There are mainly three types of learning: formal, non-formal, and informal. For the most part, I take a wide range of formal academic courses. But, I saw many people engaging in informal learning, through workshops, and independent reading. People who choose to become a life-long learner may have many different reasons for doing so. They may get education not only for knowledge, but also for well-being in their personal and professional life. “Most professional preparations become outdated before one gets situated in a career. Hewlett Packard has estimated that what one learns in a Bachelor of Engineering program is outdated or ‘deconstructs’ in 18 months, and for technology related fields that half-life is even less”. ( Merriam, and Bierema, 2014, p.5).

 Reflective: What did you realize about teaching as a result of this quote?

Life-long learning requires that a learner be self-directed, independent, and engage in aprogram that facilitates a change in skill, thinking, and confidence. From this quote Irealize that teaching is not a simple thing. Although I have not taught yet as an instructor, I believe that a teacher can motivate the students to enhance their self-directness, and create interest in learning. Teachers must recognize the needs of each learner to be effective in the classroom. Teachers must also work towards becoming expert guides and counsellors to support independent thinking and life-long learning.

Interpretive: What was your Aha! moment when you read this quote? In what ways did this quote change your mind about being an adult educator? What was one key insight that you now have as a result of this quote?

My Aha! moment was when I researched about life-long learning in the teacher and student context, I realized that every teacher and student is a part of the journey into life-long learning. This quote made it clear to me that teaching is not an easy job because every individual is different from each other and not take interest in learning in the same way. Students need the instructor to provide better support for them. I really believe that the duty of the instructor is to create an effective environment in the classroom, where each student can feel comfortable and able to learn. The key insight I gained from this quote is that, mutual understanding is very important between teacher and students to generate a positive atmosphere in the classroom. I believe the use of motivation will help me in my lessons to encourage the learners for their self-directed learning.

Decisional: How has this quote and the insight that you have gained from reflecting upon it, influenced your notion of teaching or how you will teach  in the future?

After reflecting this quote, I believe that teaching is a good way of learning. The process of reflection has helped me realize the responsibility of an educator and how to become a good manager and organizer of the classroom, and how I can have an influence on people’s lives. To be a successful educator I will keep these reflections in my mind and think about that how I encourage my students for learning. I will give them real life practical tasks, so they will know about real life situations, and they will be able to handle them in an easy way.


Delors, J., (1996). Learning: The treasure within Report to UNESCO of the international

Commission of education for the Twenty-first Century, UNESCO. Retrieved from:

Merriam, S.B., and Bierema, L.L., (2014).Adult Learning  Linking Theory and

Practice ( p.5). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Journal# 2

“adults are problem-centered, not subject-centered, and desire immediate, not

 postponed application of the knowledge learned.”(p. 53)

Objective: What have you learned from reflecting on this particular quote? What has caught

 your attention?

This quote caught my attention to know the needs of adult learners. I believe that adults usually want to learn something to better their lives in some way. They are not only interested in knowledge for its own sake; learning may be simply a means to an end. “adults bring a wealth of information and experiences to a learning situation, and therefore, generally want to

be treated as equals who can assume responsibility for their own learning” ( Zemke & Zemke, 1984). According to Knowles, adults, for the most part, do not learn “simply for the sake of the learning” (Blondy, 2007,p.125). As Merriam & Bierema suggest, most informal community and continuing education program, are subject-based with an immediate application for learners. Instead, adult learners pursue learning projects that have an immediate application and relevance to their life situation and social roles (Blondy, Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Adult learners, therefore are, “problem-centered, not subject-centered” (Merriam & Bierema).

Reflective: What did you realize about teaching as a result of this quote?

This quote made me realize that as a teacher of adults I need to make learning experiences applicable to the student’s visual perception of their future. I need to engage them in learning objectives and goals, and to find out that how the objectives will have a  practical and positive influence on their personal and professional lives. This will help make a healthy relationship between teacher and student which is very important to achieve goals. As an instructor I also care about that what students would think, and how would they co-operate with me. I am open to exploring the fact that there is more than one way to achieve this. From further reading this quote, I am able to understand why adults prefer problem centered learning. “Problem-centered learning is preferred by adults because it is more engaging and lends itself to immediate application, which is turns solidifies the learning” ( Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p.54).

Interpretive: What was your ‘Aha!” moment when you read this quote? In what ways did this quote change your mind about being an adult educator? What was one key insight that you now have as a result of this quote?

My Aha! moment was when I read this quote,  I believe I am very curious to seeking a learning as I can learn from different learning theories and approaches. As I am not taught yet, but to be an instructor, I believe that problem-centered learning is another good way for me to examine assimilation into my teaching. The key insight for me is the feature that adults want immediate results of their learning, and are eager to apply those results. They know what they have attained from their life experiences, and make themselves focus on what is important to them in terms of education which they are seeking beneficial to their own lives. “If adults can see why it is important to learn something before they begin a learning activity, their motivation is that much stronger. Of-course, much of one’s “need to know” arises from encountering life situations and developmental changes in social” ( Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p.55).

Decisional: How has this quote and the insight that you have gained from reflecting upon it, influenced your notion teaching or how you will teach in the future?

Learning theories suggest that adults are problem-centered and want immediate application of their learning. However, I believe that they not only want immediate application of learning, but also want to understand why the learning is important to them. There is a need of educators to help learners to achieve their goals and objectives. Blondy (2007) suggests that educators can encourage learning by being role models, providing help with career planning, and help learners to identify learning gaps. To be a teacher, problem-centered learning is a great way to motivate learners to learn the material. They can use their knowledge to have an immediate solution, and can use the information as soon as possible. I would use this method into my lesson planning and relate it with each individual.


Blondy, L., (2007). Evaluation and Application of andragogical assumption to the adult online learning environment. Journal of interactive online learning, 6(2),p. 116-130. Retrieved from

Merriam, S., & Bierema, L.L., (2014). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. pp-53. San-

Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Merriam, S., Bierema, L.L., (2014). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. Pp-55. San-

Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Zemke, R., & Zemke, S., (1984). 30 Things we know for sure about adult learning: Innovation

Abstracts, Vol (8), March,1984. Retrieved from:

Journal #3

“…some suggested strategies for engaging in critical reflection possibly leading to transformative learning are modeling and peer learning, storytelling and dialogue, coaching, and action learning conversations.” (p.93)

 Objective: What have you learned from reflecting on this particular quote? What has caught your attention?

This quote caught my attention that it is based on the relationship between critical-reflection and transformative learning. Reflection allows us to correct misinterpretation in our beliefs and errors into solving our problems. Critical reflection is the tool that the learner has to use to challenge their own ideologies in order for transformation learning to occur. “A part of transformative learning is for individuals to change their frames of reference by critically reflecting on their assumptions and beliefs, and consciously making and implementing plans that bring about new ways of defining their worlds.” ( Mezirow, 1997, p.5 ). With the challenge, the learner has much to question and it will give a reason to question their own beliefs on a certain subject. “In an instructional setting the tools at our disposal are to model and enable students to examine and critically assess their assumptions about themselves, the world and their place in the world.” (Merriam, and Bierema, 2014, p. 95).

Reflective: What did you realize about teaching as a result of this quote?

This quote gives innumerable suggestions on strategies of critical reflection. All suggestions involve into interaction between learners, and with their teachers. Critical reflection involves a lot of questions and that induced the class to find answers. The critical reflection focuses on effective learning and engagement in the classroom. “…active learning involves a providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk and listen, write, read, and reflect on the content, ideas, issues and concerns of academic subjects.” ( Meyers and Jones, 1993, p.6 ). To be an instructor who wants to use critical reflection in the classroom, must be prepare to have an open conversation and encourage the students towards to achieve their goals and must try to know that how they think about those goals. It is also an instructor’s responsibility to create a positive learning environment in the classroom where each student could present their ideas and views in-front of other peers and their instructors. That would be biased in terms of reflecting and finding answers to have transformative learning occurs. “ There must be space for students to reflect, discuss, and engage in activities that draw upon their life experiences.” ( Merriam, and Bierema, 2014, p.96 ).

Interpretive: What was your ‘Aha!” moment when you read this quote? In what ways did this quote change your mind about being an adult educator? What was one key insight that you now have as a result of this quote?

Transformative learning is a challenging as you have to put in mind of the learner to challenge their own belief system.  Transformative learning can only take place within the learners themselves but this is not sure that transformative learning would take place by using the method of critical reflection.  Although, the suggested strategies may help the learner to look into the things in a new way  in order to ask themselves the important questions. “It is clear that the individual learner is at the heart of the process. It is the learner herself or himself whose attention turns to questioning and examining long held assumptions about the self and the world in which one lives. Even of changing society is the ultimate goal as in the social change perspective of Friere and other activists, the process begins with individuals questioning and ultimately altering the way they see themselves in the world.” ( Merriam, and Bierema, 2014, p.90)

Decisional: How has this quote and the insight that you have gained from reflecting upon it,  influenced your notion of teaching or how you will teach in the future? 

Theories of Andragogy and transformational learning has to focus their similarities. To me it reinforces the fact that when dealing with adult education, the focus has to be on the individual and the role of the educator is to facilitate the process. Transformative learning deals with the learner in a state of self-realization. Using critical reflection as a tool, the educator must be supportive and positive to help the learner shed new light on perspectives they might not have thought about and possibly improve on their understanding of certain subjects through transformative learning. I believe the transformative learning promotes the idea of allowing people to learn in general. The idea of someone’s presumptions of themselves and world can be changed due to open reflection and dialogue with others show a willingness to learn and evolve.


Merriam, S, and Bierema, L.L., (2014). Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice. p.90.

San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Merriam, S, and Bierema, L.L., (2014). Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice. p.95.

San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Merriam, S, and Bierema, L.L., (2014). Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice. p.96.

Journal #4

“ Preserving at online learning is also affected by computer and information literacy, time management…online communication skills…self-esteem, feelings of belongingness in the online program and ability to develop interpersonal skills with peers…” (p.199)

Objective: What have you learned from reflecting on this particular quote? What has caught your attention?

I have chosen this quote because I can relate it to with all the factors that are important for me as an online learner. I don’t have any online learning experience because I am new to online learning program so it was little hard for me to time management and online communication. I am working on assignment with my partner, I would able to know my online communication skills. We discussed our assignment and support and collaborate with each other. This was a good exercise and helped me feel less alone. As a teacher it is easy to recommend to students to  ‘stay focused, set goals, manage your time, and stay positive.’ Teachers have to be encourage and introduce students to the online education, mark assignments, and assess the needs of learners. Unfortunately, there are many learners and adults who may not know how to do this. So teachers and learners need to be adapt to all that is going on around them to attain goals. Students have to be focused and asked questions and search out information to accomplish goals to continue on in the course.

Reflective: What did you realize about teaching as a result of this quote?  

From this quote I learned that in order to be a successful teacher, whether an online format, classroom or in life, one would need to focus on the quality of completions. Success as a teacher is gained by seeing that learners understand information and can apply it to the real world situations, the application of information, insures knowledge, therefore success would be seen as a learner progress in their journey of applied learning. I believe that, in online learning to be an instructor you have to understand how your students feel comfortable with you. You would also have to overcome their hesitation and insecurities that they may have with self-directed learning.

Interpretive: What was your ‘ Aha!” moment when you read this quote? In what  ways did this quote change your mind about being an adult educator? What was one key insight that you  have as a result of this quote?

My ‘Aha”! moment was when I read this quote that technological change allows students to access a wide variety of knowledge from a vast array of resources on internet. This is driving more and more adult education to take place online learning which changes the role of the educator from teacher to facilitator. Education paradigms are shifting to include more online learning, blended  and hybrid learning, and collaborative models. Clearly the most important role of the online instructor is to model effective teaching and accept “the responsibility of keeping discussions track, contributing special knowledge and insights, weaving together various discussion threads and course components, and maintaining group harmony” ( Rohfeld, and Hiemstra, 1995, p.91).

Decisional: How has this quote and the insight that you have gained from reflecting upon it, Influenced your notion of teaching or how you will teach in the future?

Online learning is effectively use in the field of education. This quote gave me the idea that how I can pre-assess my students through online learning, simply by asking them about their educational back-ground, levels completed, their worst and best educational experiences, and which kind of support they are seeking from me to achieve their educational goals. I believe that the students who learn in online conditions may perform better than those students who gain information as same as traditional face to face conditions. “ key findings include that blended instruction ( a combination of face-to-face or online. Learners also had better outcomes in courses where the online instruction was collaborative or instruction-driven then when learners were left to be self-directed on their own.” ( Merriam, and Biereme, 2014, p.198).


Merriam, S.B, and Biereme, L.L., ( 2014). Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice. p. 198

San Francisco: Jossey Bass.  

Rohfeld, R. W, and Hiemstra, R., (1995). Moderating discussions in the electronic classroom. Berge and M. Collins Computer Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom Volume 3: Distance Learning. (pp: 91-104) Cresskill NJ: Hampton Press.



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