Competency Based Education (CBE) Documents


This 30 hour course comprises part two of a more extensively developed curriculum ‘Cost Accounting-A Managerial Emphasis’. The curriculum is designed to provide business managers involved in Accounting with trained, specialize workforce.

In response to the requirements of business managers, this course would provide students with in depth knowledge covering basic terms, principles, processes, and procedures governing cost accounting documentation.

As a follow-up to part two, more intermediate and/or advanced courses may be established for future teaching in this sector.


A 1.

Define the benefits of budgets

A 2.

Prepare the master operating budget

A 3.

Prepare the cash budget

A 4.

Explain three budget strategies

A 5.

Describe a responsibility versus controllability

A. Explain Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting


B. Evaluate Flexible Budgets, Variances, and management control 1


B 1.

Explain static and flexible budgets

B 2.

Describe steps in developing and flexible budget

B 3.

Analyze flexible budgeting and activity based costing

B 4.

Explain managerial uses of variance analyses


B 5.

Describe benchmarking and variance analysis



C 1.

Summarize flexible budget- fixed overhead cost variances.

C 2.

Define flexible budget variable overhead variances

C 3.

Explain activity- based costing and variance analysis

C 4.

Overview of overhead cost variances

C 5.

Explain nonfinancial and nonmanufacturing performance measures

C. Evaluate Flexible Budgets, Variances, and, management control 2


D 1.

Explain denominator level: A complex decision with complex effects

D 2.

Effects on reporting, costing, pricing, and evaluation

D 3.

Compare denominator level and inventory valuation

D 4.

Explain throughput:- Super-variable costing

D 5.

Define productivity under each cost policy





D. Analyze income effects of denomin-ator level on inventory valuation




  1. A (1) Define Benefits of Budgets: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings describing benefits, advantages of budgets, challenges in budget implementation, coordination, and communication.
  2. A (2) Prepare the master operating budget: On the basis of handouts and textbook excerpts describing all supporting budgets or schedules.
  3. A (4) Explain three budget strategies: On the basis of handouts distinguish three budget strategies- sensitivity analysis, Kaizen budgeting, and activity based budgeting.
  4. B (1) Explain static and flexible budget: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook this chapter compares realized results to both static budgets and flexible budgets.
  5. B (2) Describe steps in developing a flexible budget: On the basis of handouts and textbook excerpts describing develop flexible budgets, and calculate flexible budget and sales volume variances, price variances, and efficiency variances for direct cost categories.
  6. C (2) Summarize flexible- budget variable overhead variances: On the basis of handouts and textbook readings establish variable overhead cost allocation rates, calculate and analyze flexible budget variances.
  7. C (3) Explain activity based costing and variance analysis: On the basis of handouts given to the students, this section illustrates variance analysis for variable and fixed batch level setup overhead costs.
  8. C (4) Overview of overhead cost variances: On the basis handouts and assigned textbook readings explaining integrate the fixed and variable overhead cost variance analyses to reconcile the actual overhead incurred with overhead allocated.
  9. D (1) Explain denominator levels: A complex decision with complex effects: On the basis of handouts identify the factors important to choosing the denominator level used to calculate fixed overhead allocation rates.
  10. D (5) Define productivity under each cost policy: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings explain productivity measurement under each of the three cost policies.


Course profile- Rationale

  1. Describe the purposes or needs that your course addresses? (Why is this course needed? What is needed in the course in terms of content and/or delivery?)

The proposed curriculum is being developed to address the profit domain for 1st year students to accept their responsibility for making important, ethical decisions that respect social values and maximize profit in business management. “It is made of two words- Cost and Accounting. The term cost denotes the total of all expenditures involved in the process of production. Thus, the costs involved in the production and the cost involved receiving it. Accounting, on the other hand, collects and maintains financial records of each income and expenditure and make avail of such information to the concerned officials. Thus, cost accounting is a practice and process of cost which determines profitability of a business concern by controlling the cost with the application of accounting principle, process and rule” (Bishwambar, G, 2102).

 Content and Delivery

Students face several learning challenges as they develop the skills required to accurately estimate costs, profitable prices, inventory valuation, and return on investments in long term projects. By surmounting these challenges, they will be able both to produce more accurate estimates, and to understand these estimates are often used as future performance thresholds to which managers are held accountable. This text will support instructors as students learn how to apply their understanding of these estimation techniques to explain the causes of performance shortfalls. Students will also grasp how to choose costing techniques, affects amount reported on the income statement cash flow and balance sheet. Students will be able to know about the foundation in theory and general principles before they move in the higher level work. Delivery will be delivered at university level- the class size will be large. Delivery of the course will require computer programs, such as Excel’s simple regression and matrix algebra, which all the calculation at the push of a button, even if the underlying theory is somewhat complex. The goal of this course is to create excellent management accountants.

2. Why is your course better suited to CBE or the OBE approach?

As stated in PIDP 3210 curriculum development course manual, the competency-based education (CBE) is a system of education and training based on the achievement by learners of specific elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude. Such elements or competencies are usually the result of the analysis of a workplace occupation or other real world requirements. Competencies are specific observable (often measurable), and learner centred performances. Competencies are related to what students do, not just what they learn. The term competency implies performance according to a specific standard or criteria.

As the instructor, I have chosen the CBE approach due to the complex nature of material and information to be conveyed. Since this course is related to a workplace occupation and the students possess no basic knowledge as they enter the course this calls for the CBE approach.

3. Describe how one of your performance objectives aligns with the need, instructional activities and assessment of your course?

Define the benefits of budget: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings describing the benefits and advantages of budgets, challenges in budget implementation, coordination and communication.

In this condition a budget is a quantitative expression for a set time period of a proposed plan of action by management. Budgets are a major feature of managements-control systems. By this course learners will be able to learn how budgets provide feedback to managers about the consequences of their strategic and operating plans.


Bishwambar, G. (2012). Retrieved from:




Day- 4; 9:00 am-10:30 am

Total Time for lesson

1 Hour 30 Min

Lesson Objective (s):

On the basis of handouts describe the definition and advantages of budget, challenges in budget implementation, and coordination and communication of budgets.

Instructor/ Facilitator Activities Learner/ Participant Activities Resources Time
Bridge In….

·       Greet each student with the time of the day as they enter the classroom. When everybody is seated, introduce myself and give a brief history of my background in Accounting. Ask the students to introduce themselves so I can start putting names to faces.

Also, as part of the opening, explain how we will work together in groups and individually during the entire course.







Participate in Discussion











10 min

Pre Assessment…

·       Distribute pre-assessment questionnaire covering basic accounting knowledge.

·       Divide the class into groups of 3-4. Ask them to talk about their personal reasons for taking this course. Elicit answers to the general question written on the board, What do you know about Cost- Accounting?








Answer the questions using responders when requested



Paper style quiz







10 min

Presentation/ Practice/ Evaluation…

·       Explain definition and advantages of budgets.

·       Power-point: Describe different challenges in implementation of budgets.

·       Demonstrate and Explain coordination and communication in budgets




Observe, Listen



Watch- ask questions



Watch- ask questions if needed















10 min



20 min



15 min






·       Distribute post-assessment questionnaire about dealing with budgets.




Solve questionnaire







Paper style quiz




15 min

Summary/ Closure Activities….

Briefly summarize the main objectives of the lesson and as a whole. Ask students how much they have learned about the benefits of budgets.


Listen and comment



10 min

Lesson Plan Reflection

How have you changed the original document based on the feedback you received? If you haven’t made changes, why did you make the decision to not revise?


I have realized that it’s not just about providing content, great teaching is providing opportunities for

students to gain and practice their new knowledge and skills, promoting deeper level thinking ( why,

how) and setting high expectations for all students and being available to help them get there. I realized

that learning styles are not as relevant as using a multitude of instructional techniques and modes that

which best suit the material being delivered. Create relevant and valid lessons and content learning to

prior or future knowledge and share how it will be beneficial to the students.

I chose not to change my lesson plan document, because I think my instructional objectives were met.

as I used BOPPPS model for my lesson plan. The presentation of my lesson would have been enhanced

more descriptive through teaching-learning methods that I used during my lesson plan. By using a paper

style quiz and power-point presentation engaged the students in the lesson as they have chance to

practice the various competencies. On the basis of the teacher’s feedback I have realized that there

many more issues and that I need to cover in my lesson plan. I will add more activities in my lesson’s

presentation and will more elaborate it, so that my students can engage in the lesson. I will more

specific about the directions of my subject matter. I believed that review is missed in my lesson plan

because review is very important to engage students. I feel I should include more communication

activities involving students, that way they would get more of the practice they need and I would have a

better understanding what they know or don’t know. I will use more effective techniques to help my

students to consolidate their learning. But, overall my lesson plan document went well.


How have you changed the documents based on new ideas that you have learnt since you wrote the document

While creating a lesson plan document, I have understood so many things. I have learned that to be

effective, the lesson plan does not have to be an exhaustive document that describes each and every

possible classroom scenario. A productive lesson is not one in which everything goes exactly as planned,

but one in which both students and instructor learn from each other. I realized that time management is

essential in ensuring student engagement. After learning about the brain, teaching and learning, a

teacher needs to be conscious of what is happening to the brain of students as they go through the

process of learning. Ensuring alignment between curriculum, instructor and assessment also foster

confidence between teacher and student (by positive learning environment).

I have learned that instructors who understand and employ effective classroom management

techniques are better equipped to create and sustain positive learning environment. Through my PIDP

3210 journey, I learnt that, as a teacher I will ensure that my students have a clear sense of direction

and progress will go a long way toward maintaining morale.

Business Administration Program

Course Number- 4

Course title- Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis

Prerequisites- none

Course credits- 3

Course Description:

This course starts with an introduction to cost terms and discusses the purposes of Cost Accounting. The course methodology consists of readings and assignments related to current documentation issues, it is supported by group work and peer discussions, in class case studies, power-point presentations, and supplemental reading materials.

Course objectives/ Learning objectives

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the role of cost accounting and compare and contrast to financial accounting
  • Describe how to value chain of business functions lead to the customer satisfaction
  • Describe various factors of planning and control system
  • Prepare cash budget and master operating budget
  • Describe activity- based costing, and identifying cost and revenue drivers.

Required Textbook:

Horngren, C.T, (2010). Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis. (Vol. 1). Canada: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Course Format:

This is a ten week course including examinations. This course starts from April 15.

Course Schedule:

Week 1

Chapter -1- Management Accountants: Their vital role in strategic and operating decisions.

Week 2

Chapter -2- An introduction to cost terms and purposes.

Week 3

Chapter -3 – Cost Volume – Profit Analysis

Midterm 1 (covering chapters 1-4)

Week 4

Chapter -4 – Job costing

Week 5

Chapter -5 – Activity- Based Costing and Activity- Based Management

Week 6

Chapter -6 – Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting

Midterm 2 (covering chapters 1-6)

Week 7

Chapter -7 – Flexible Budgets Variances and Management Control 1

Week 8

Chapter -8 – Flexible Budgets Variances and Management Control 2

Week 9

Chapter -9 – Income Effects of Denominator level on Inventory Valuation

Week 10

Chapter- 10 – Decision Making and Relevant Information

Final Examination

 Assessment and Evaluation:

Assignments Value
Midterm 1 20%
Midterm 2 30%
Final Exam 50%
Total 100%

 Exam Policy:

Students must attend all required scheduled exams that make up a final grade at the appointed time and place.

Individual instructors may accommodate for illness and personal crisis. Any student who misses a scheduled exam without approval will be given a grade “0” for the exam.

 Course Grades:

Course grades are assigned as follow:

Grade A+ A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D F
Marks ≥ 90 89-85 84-80 79-76 75-72 71-68 67-64 63-60 59-55 54-50 < 50

Changes to the course outline:

Information contained in course outline is correct at the time of publication. Content of the course is revised on an ongoing basis to ensure relevance to changing educational, employment and marketing needs.



All Publicly funded curricula should be based on the Essential skills or the Employability skills


When I read this statement, I thought that publicly funded curricula should ‘repayment’ through

teachers and other employers that has meaning to the public. Public funded curricula is curriculum

offered and paid for by society. But the question is, who takes advantage of this curricula, and who is

responsible to the ‘repayment’.

How employability skills should develop in public funded curricula, how much focus should be placed on

developing workers designed to fill an employer’s needs, and how much focus should be placed on

developing human beings to their full potential.


I think publicly funded curricula should promote and expand opportunities for students to access work-

based learning. These experiential opportunities require careful planning and time for reflection must be

built in if they are to be an effective way of providing adult learners with relevant employment skills,

knowledge and awareness of employer culture. Public funded based curriculum should responsible for

higher education provision should take into account students’ employment needs including the generic

skills and abilities needed in the workplace and reflect them in the curriculum and course design.


All publicly funded curricula should be based on employability skills, because at the present time

learners face a highly competitive and increasingly uncertain labor market. To succeed in the workplace,

21st century learners need:

  • A positive attitude and confidence in using and transferring personal, social,

communication, and occupational skills and qualities in order to enter employment.

  • To respond positively and flexibility to a rapidly changing workplace which presents technical

and economic challenges, and

  • To manage their own learning and development and display a range of employability skills.

I believe that public funded curricula should provide the challenges icon to help an identify and consider

the challenges that learners, teachers and organizations face in developing employability skills, for

example, how can teachers convey to learners the importance and relevance of understanding the

business and make links to other aspects of learners’ programs? “Funding streams therefore need to

encourage an institutional culture supportive of employability skills. Universities need to reflect the

promotion of employability skills and attributes in their mission statements, learning and teaching

strategies, course framework, strategic document and practical guidance. ( Lowden, Hall, Elliot, and

Lewin, 2011, p.7).


Employability skills are skills almost everyone needs to do almost any job. They are skills that make

specific knowledge and technical skills fully productive. Essential skills are also necessary for teaching

when students need and want to have those skills. If the curriculum is publicly funded it helps to drive

up quality and relevance through improvements in competency based assessment in the educational

process. By this, students will be able to work in a team, communicate clearly, listen well, an interested

and keen to learn, take criticism, solve problems, read, write and add. Publicly funded curricula gives

learning providers the necessary flexibility to adopt the full range of employability skills and good

practice, and encourage them to do so. Students who engage in developing their employability are likely

to be independent, reflective and responsible leaners. As an instructor, I must believe that all publicly

funded curricula should be based on essential and employability skills.


Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D., & Lewin, J. (2011). Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. University of glassgow, England: Published by Edge foundation. Retrieved from:



Reflective Writing on TED talk by Kiran Bir Sethi- Kids to take charge


Kiranbir Sethi’s early training as a designer is clear in her work as an educator. In 2001, she founded the

Riverside school in Ahmedabad, designing the primary school curriculum (and its building) from the

ground up. Based on six “Beacons of learning” the school’s lesson plan focuses on creating curious,

competent future citizens. The school now enrolls almost 300 children and has franchised its curriculum


In her TED talk she shows her groundbreaking Riverside school in India teaches kids life’s most valuable

lesson, “I can”.

She initiates the talk by describing about ‘contagious’. She cites examples of contagious in different

manner, “laughter is contagious, passion is contagious, Inspiration is contagious”. She is changing the

way we think about children, the way they think about themselves and her ideas are contagious.

As she states in her TED talk, ever since, 2007, Ahmedabad, where the school is located, “closes down

the busiest streets for traffic and converts it into a playground for children and childhood”. By extending

the Riverside school philosophy across the country, she has helped thousands of children create and

implement their own projects, including but not limited to 32 children who stopped 16 child marriages,

kids who taught their parents to read and write, and child-friendly crosswalks.

In the end, she condemns that if people have passion to do the changing lives, then how can they still

stay immune? How can they still immune to that passion, that energy, that excitement? She ended with

the most powerful symbol of change Gandhiji, “we can”.


Through her planned practices and activities, she did not only increased confidence in children regarding

their abilities to bring change in system around them but also changed their minds in logical thinking,

resulting in their performance in Mathematics, English and Science. During the talk one of the best

aspects of her delivery were her transition. Throughout the entire talk, she wove in the metaphor of


She talked about infecting first the school, then, Ahmedabad, then the entirely of India, with the idea of

“I can”. From the beginning of her speech to the end, she used the idea of “I can” as a sort of positive

contagion to relate each and every topic she covered.

We are all able to infected by the “I can” mindset according to Kiran. The I can mindset says that after

stages of inspiration you will obtain, the inspiration to act on your opinion. The stages of inspiration are

“aware” being able to see the change, “enable” to be changed, and then “empower” lead the change.

Riverside school in India was created because she acted on her inspirations. In this school they have

children build an incense stick to see the hardness of child labor, and then students go out tell others

about it. This is the difference between ‘teacher taught me’ verses ‘I can do it’.

She indeed has an infectious (and contagious) smile and passion that are a perfect fit for her inspiring.


When I researched about Kiran’s work, I came to know that in India they took standardized tests, these

students scored highest in their district, which is evidence that this helps kids learn too. Because, Kiran

knows how to evoke positive inspiration into her students. I did like her focus and her intent to build a

very strong case for social change by “I can” and she did actually achieve what she wanted. She became

a master at it, and decided it and was time to infect the city with the “I can” virus. By heard this TED talk,

I believe that Kiran Sethi is a psychological genius that knows how to successfully persuade the minds of

children to act on what they care about. She has identified India’s problems and will fight to end them.

She taught her students to take local issues in their own hands, lead other young people and even

educate their parents. We can see in her video, how people are influenced from her work. This is a

positive aspect of her work which makes her to be proud.


She has introduced psychological theories that understand a mindsett of children and know how to

motivate them to learn. One of the main-point of her TED talk is “if education is embedded in a real

world context- blurring the boundaries between school and life”. It starts with believing in kids: when

adults believe in children and say, “you can”, then they will. As I belong to India, I can realize how she

works hard to lead a positive change in Indian society. She made everyone realize that how “I can” bug

makes a big impact in designing solutions to diverse range of social problems around. As a teacher, after

getting inspired I will inculcate these values into my students to turn them into responsible citizens.

I believe that education should be based on this criteria, not only getting a grades and degree. This is the

responsibility of the teacher to facilitate the learners to improve their society and even educate their

parents to know the value of real education.

By her talk I realized, teaching-learning process is based on “I can” that incorporates service with

learning to show children the empowering quality of knowledge. This style of learning correlates with

better performance in school.

Imagine what the world of education might be like if her philosophies where put into action

everywhere? Kiranbir Sethi is a visionary and her bravery to put her passion to the test is very

admirable. I hope everyone who hears her TED talk finds her ideas contagious.


Kiran Bir Sethi teaches kids to take charge

Retrieved from: http://www.ted.com/talks/kiran_bir_sethi_teaches_kids_to_take_chargem



















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