Competency Based Education (CBE) Documents
This 30 hour course comprises part two of a more extensively developed curriculum ‘Cost Accounting-A Managerial Emphasis’. The curriculum is designed to provide business managers involved in Accounting with trained, specialize workforce.
In response to the requirements of business managers, this course would provide students with in depth knowledge covering basic terms, principles, processes, and procedures governing cost accounting documentation.
As a follow-up to part two, more intermediate and/or advanced courses may be established for future teaching in this sector.
Define the benefits of budgets
Prepare the master operating budget
Prepare the cash budget
Explain three budget strategies
Describe a responsibility versus controllability
|A. Explain Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting|
|B. Evaluate Flexible Budgets, Variances, and management control 1|
Explain static and flexible budgets
Describe steps in developing and flexible budget
Analyze flexible budgeting and activity based costing
Explain managerial uses of variance analyses
Describe benchmarking and variance analysis
Summarize flexible budget- fixed overhead cost variances.
Define flexible budget variable overhead variances
Explain activity- based costing and variance analysis
Overview of overhead cost variances
Explain nonfinancial and nonmanufacturing performance measures
|C. Evaluate Flexible Budgets, Variances, and, management control 2|
Explain denominator level: A complex decision with complex effects
Effects on reporting, costing, pricing, and evaluation
Compare denominator level and inventory valuation
Explain throughput:- Super-variable costing
Define productivity under each cost policy
|D. Analyze income effects of denomin-ator level on inventory valuation|
DACUM CHART: TOOLS FOR PLANNING AND CONTROL: COST ACCOUNTING
TEN SAMPLE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
- A (1) Define Benefits of Budgets: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings describing benefits, advantages of budgets, challenges in budget implementation, coordination, and communication.
- A (2) Prepare the master operating budget: On the basis of handouts and textbook excerpts describing all supporting budgets or schedules.
- A (4) Explain three budget strategies: On the basis of handouts distinguish three budget strategies- sensitivity analysis, Kaizen budgeting, and activity based budgeting.
- B (1) Explain static and flexible budget: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook this chapter compares realized results to both static budgets and flexible budgets.
- B (2) Describe steps in developing a flexible budget: On the basis of handouts and textbook excerpts describing develop flexible budgets, and calculate flexible budget and sales volume variances, price variances, and efficiency variances for direct cost categories.
- C (2) Summarize flexible- budget variable overhead variances: On the basis of handouts and textbook readings establish variable overhead cost allocation rates, calculate and analyze flexible budget variances.
- C (3) Explain activity based costing and variance analysis: On the basis of handouts given to the students, this section illustrates variance analysis for variable and fixed batch level setup overhead costs.
- C (4) Overview of overhead cost variances: On the basis handouts and assigned textbook readings explaining integrate the fixed and variable overhead cost variance analyses to reconcile the actual overhead incurred with overhead allocated.
- D (1) Explain denominator levels: A complex decision with complex effects: On the basis of handouts identify the factors important to choosing the denominator level used to calculate fixed overhead allocation rates.
- D (5) Define productivity under each cost policy: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings explain productivity measurement under each of the three cost policies.
Course profile- Rationale
- Describe the purposes or needs that your course addresses? (Why is this course needed? What is needed in the course in terms of content and/or delivery?)
The proposed curriculum is being developed to address the profit domain for 1st year students to accept their responsibility for making important, ethical decisions that respect social values and maximize profit in business management. “It is made of two words- Cost and Accounting. The term cost denotes the total of all expenditures involved in the process of production. Thus, the costs involved in the production and the cost involved receiving it. Accounting, on the other hand, collects and maintains financial records of each income and expenditure and make avail of such information to the concerned officials. Thus, cost accounting is a practice and process of cost which determines profitability of a business concern by controlling the cost with the application of accounting principle, process and rule” (Bishwambar, G, 2102).
Content and Delivery
Students face several learning challenges as they develop the skills required to accurately estimate costs, profitable prices, inventory valuation, and return on investments in long term projects. By surmounting these challenges, they will be able both to produce more accurate estimates, and to understand these estimates are often used as future performance thresholds to which managers are held accountable. This text will support instructors as students learn how to apply their understanding of these estimation techniques to explain the causes of performance shortfalls. Students will also grasp how to choose costing techniques, affects amount reported on the income statement cash flow and balance sheet. Students will be able to know about the foundation in theory and general principles before they move in the higher level work. Delivery will be delivered at university level- the class size will be large. Delivery of the course will require computer programs, such as Excel’s simple regression and matrix algebra, which all the calculation at the push of a button, even if the underlying theory is somewhat complex. The goal of this course is to create excellent management accountants.
2. Why is your course better suited to CBE or the OBE approach?
As stated in PIDP 3210 curriculum development course manual, the competency-based education (CBE) is a system of education and training based on the achievement by learners of specific elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude. Such elements or competencies are usually the result of the analysis of a workplace occupation or other real world requirements. Competencies are specific observable (often measurable), and learner centred performances. Competencies are related to what students do, not just what they learn. The term competency implies performance according to a specific standard or criteria.
As the instructor, I have chosen the CBE approach due to the complex nature of material and information to be conveyed. Since this course is related to a workplace occupation and the students possess no basic knowledge as they enter the course this calls for the CBE approach.
3. Describe how one of your performance objectives aligns with the need, instructional activities and assessment of your course?
Define the benefits of budget: On the basis of handouts and assigned textbook readings describing the benefits and advantages of budgets, challenges in budget implementation, coordination and communication.
In this condition a budget is a quantitative expression for a set time period of a proposed plan of action by management. Budgets are a major feature of managements-control systems. By this course learners will be able to learn how budgets provide feedback to managers about the consequences of their strategic and operating plans.
Bishwambar, G. (2012). Retrieved from:
|LESSON PLAN- DEFINE THE BENEFITS OF BUDGETS: COST ACCOUNTING
Day- 4; 9:00 am-10:30 am
|Total Time for lesson
1 Hour 30 Min
|Lesson Objective (s):
On the basis of handouts describe the definition and advantages of budget, challenges in budget implementation, and coordination and communication of budgets.
|LESSON PLAN/ WORKSHOP/ ELEMENTS|
|Instructor/ Facilitator Activities||Learner/ Participant Activities||Resources||Time|
· Greet each student with the time of the day as they enter the classroom. When everybody is seated, introduce myself and give a brief history of my background in Accounting. Ask the students to introduce themselves so I can start putting names to faces.
Also, as part of the opening, explain how we will work together in groups and individually during the entire course.
Participate in Discussion
· Distribute pre-assessment questionnaire covering basic accounting knowledge.
· Divide the class into groups of 3-4. Ask them to talk about their personal reasons for taking this course. Elicit answers to the general question written on the board, What do you know about Cost- Accounting?
Answer the questions using responders when requested
Paper style quiz
|Presentation/ Practice/ Evaluation…
· Explain definition and advantages of budgets.
· Power-point: Describe different challenges in implementation of budgets.
· Demonstrate and Explain coordination and communication in budgets
Watch- ask questions
Watch- ask questions if needed
· Distribute post-assessment questionnaire about dealing with budgets.
Paper style quiz
|Summary/ Closure Activities….
Briefly summarize the main objectives of the lesson and as a whole. Ask students how much they have learned about the benefits of budgets.
Listen and comment
Lesson Plan Reflection
How have you changed the original document based on the feedback you received? If you haven’t made changes, why did you make the decision to not revise?
I have realized that it’s not just about providing content, great teaching is providing opportunities for
students to gain and practice their new knowledge and skills, promoting deeper level thinking ( why,
how) and setting high expectations for all students and being available to help them get there. I realized
that learning styles are not as relevant as using a multitude of instructional techniques and modes that
which best suit the material being delivered. Create relevant and valid lessons and content learning to
prior or future knowledge and share how it will be beneficial to the students.
I chose not to change my lesson plan document, because I think my instructional objectives were met.
as I used BOPPPS model for my lesson plan. The presentation of my lesson would have been enhanced
more descriptive through teaching-learning methods that I used during my lesson plan. By using a paper
style quiz and power-point presentation engaged the students in the lesson as they have chance to
practice the various competencies. On the basis of the teacher’s feedback I have realized that there
many more issues and that I need to cover in my lesson plan. I will add more activities in my lesson’s
presentation and will more elaborate it, so that my students can engage in the lesson. I will more
specific about the directions of my subject matter. I believed that review is missed in my lesson plan
because review is very important to engage students. I feel I should include more communication
activities involving students, that way they would get more of the practice they need and I would have a
better understanding what they know or don’t know. I will use more effective techniques to help my
students to consolidate their learning. But, overall my lesson plan document went well.
How have you changed the documents based on new ideas that you have learnt since you wrote the document
While creating a lesson plan document, I have understood so many things. I have learned that to be
effective, the lesson plan does not have to be an exhaustive document that describes each and every
possible classroom scenario. A productive lesson is not one in which everything goes exactly as planned,
but one in which both students and instructor learn from each other. I realized that time management is
essential in ensuring student engagement. After learning about the brain, teaching and learning, a
teacher needs to be conscious of what is happening to the brain of students as they go through the
process of learning. Ensuring alignment between curriculum, instructor and assessment also foster
confidence between teacher and student (by positive learning environment).
I have learned that instructors who understand and employ effective classroom management
techniques are better equipped to create and sustain positive learning environment. Through my PIDP
3210 journey, I learnt that, as a teacher I will ensure that my students have a clear sense of direction
and progress will go a long way toward maintaining morale.
Business Administration Program
Course Number- 4
Course title- Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis
Course credits- 3
This course starts with an introduction to cost terms and discusses the purposes of Cost Accounting. The course methodology consists of readings and assignments related to current documentation issues, it is supported by group work and peer discussions, in class case studies, power-point presentations, and supplemental reading materials.
Course objectives/ Learning objectives
Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:
- Describe the role of cost accounting and compare and contrast to financial accounting
- Describe how to value chain of business functions lead to the customer satisfaction
- Describe various factors of planning and control system
- Prepare cash budget and master operating budget
- Describe activity- based costing, and identifying cost and revenue drivers.
Horngren, C.T, (2010). Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis. (Vol. 1). Canada: Pearson Learning Solutions.
This is a ten week course including examinations. This course starts from April 15.
Chapter -1- Management Accountants: Their vital role in strategic and operating decisions.
Chapter -2- An introduction to cost terms and purposes.
Chapter -3 – Cost Volume – Profit Analysis
Midterm 1 (covering chapters 1-4)
Chapter -4 – Job costing
Chapter -5 – Activity- Based Costing and Activity- Based Management
Chapter -6 – Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting
Midterm 2 (covering chapters 1-6)
Chapter -7 – Flexible Budgets Variances and Management Control 1
Chapter -8 – Flexible Budgets Variances and Management Control 2
Chapter -9 – Income Effects of Denominator level on Inventory Valuation
Chapter- 10 – Decision Making and Relevant Information
Assessment and Evaluation:
Students must attend all required scheduled exams that make up a final grade at the appointed time and place.
Individual instructors may accommodate for illness and personal crisis. Any student who misses a scheduled exam without approval will be given a grade “0” for the exam.
Course grades are assigned as follow:
|Marks||≥ 90||89-85||84-80||79-76||75-72||71-68||67-64||63-60||59-55||54-50||< 50|
Changes to the course outline:
Information contained in course outline is correct at the time of publication. Content of the course is revised on an ongoing basis to ensure relevance to changing educational, employment and marketing needs.
All Publicly funded curricula should be based on the Essential skills or the Employability skills
When I read this statement, I thought that publicly funded curricula should ‘repayment’ through
teachers and other employers that has meaning to the public. Public funded curricula is curriculum
offered and paid for by society. But the question is, who takes advantage of this curricula, and who is
responsible to the ‘repayment’.
How employability skills should develop in public funded curricula, how much focus should be placed on
developing workers designed to fill an employer’s needs, and how much focus should be placed on
developing human beings to their full potential.
I think publicly funded curricula should promote and expand opportunities for students to access work-
based learning. These experiential opportunities require careful planning and time for reflection must be
built in if they are to be an effective way of providing adult learners with relevant employment skills,
knowledge and awareness of employer culture. Public funded based curriculum should responsible for
higher education provision should take into account students’ employment needs including the generic
skills and abilities needed in the workplace and reflect them in the curriculum and course design.
All publicly funded curricula should be based on employability skills, because at the present time
learners face a highly competitive and increasingly uncertain labor market. To succeed in the workplace,
21st century learners need:
- A positive attitude and confidence in using and transferring personal, social,
communication, and occupational skills and qualities in order to enter employment.
- To respond positively and flexibility to a rapidly changing workplace which presents technical
and economic challenges, and
- To manage their own learning and development and display a range of employability skills.
I believe that public funded curricula should provide the challenges icon to help an identify and consider
the challenges that learners, teachers and organizations face in developing employability skills, for
example, how can teachers convey to learners the importance and relevance of understanding the
business and make links to other aspects of learners’ programs? “Funding streams therefore need to
encourage an institutional culture supportive of employability skills. Universities need to reflect the
promotion of employability skills and attributes in their mission statements, learning and teaching
strategies, course framework, strategic document and practical guidance. ( Lowden, Hall, Elliot, and
Lewin, 2011, p.7).
Employability skills are skills almost everyone needs to do almost any job. They are skills that make
specific knowledge and technical skills fully productive. Essential skills are also necessary for teaching
when students need and want to have those skills. If the curriculum is publicly funded it helps to drive
up quality and relevance through improvements in competency based assessment in the educational
process. By this, students will be able to work in a team, communicate clearly, listen well, an interested
and keen to learn, take criticism, solve problems, read, write and add. Publicly funded curricula gives
learning providers the necessary flexibility to adopt the full range of employability skills and good
practice, and encourage them to do so. Students who engage in developing their employability are likely
to be independent, reflective and responsible leaners. As an instructor, I must believe that all publicly
funded curricula should be based on essential and employability skills.
Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D., & Lewin, J. (2011). Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. University of glassgow, England: Published by Edge foundation. Retrieved from:
Reflective Writing on TED talk by Kiran Bir Sethi- Kids to take charge
Kiranbir Sethi’s early training as a designer is clear in her work as an educator. In 2001, she founded the
Riverside school in Ahmedabad, designing the primary school curriculum (and its building) from the
ground up. Based on six “Beacons of learning” the school’s lesson plan focuses on creating curious,
competent future citizens. The school now enrolls almost 300 children and has franchised its curriculum
In her TED talk she shows her groundbreaking Riverside school in India teaches kids life’s most valuable
lesson, “I can”.
She initiates the talk by describing about ‘contagious’. She cites examples of contagious in different
manner, “laughter is contagious, passion is contagious, Inspiration is contagious”. She is changing the
way we think about children, the way they think about themselves and her ideas are contagious.
As she states in her TED talk, ever since, 2007, Ahmedabad, where the school is located, “closes down
the busiest streets for traffic and converts it into a playground for children and childhood”. By extending
the Riverside school philosophy across the country, she has helped thousands of children create and
implement their own projects, including but not limited to 32 children who stopped 16 child marriages,
kids who taught their parents to read and write, and child-friendly crosswalks.
In the end, she condemns that if people have passion to do the changing lives, then how can they still
stay immune? How can they still immune to that passion, that energy, that excitement? She ended with
the most powerful symbol of change Gandhiji, “we can”.
Through her planned practices and activities, she did not only increased confidence in children regarding
their abilities to bring change in system around them but also changed their minds in logical thinking,
resulting in their performance in Mathematics, English and Science. During the talk one of the best
aspects of her delivery were her transition. Throughout the entire talk, she wove in the metaphor of
She talked about infecting first the school, then, Ahmedabad, then the entirely of India, with the idea of
“I can”. From the beginning of her speech to the end, she used the idea of “I can” as a sort of positive
contagion to relate each and every topic she covered.
We are all able to infected by the “I can” mindset according to Kiran. The I can mindset says that after
stages of inspiration you will obtain, the inspiration to act on your opinion. The stages of inspiration are
“aware” being able to see the change, “enable” to be changed, and then “empower” lead the change.
Riverside school in India was created because she acted on her inspirations. In this school they have
children build an incense stick to see the hardness of child labor, and then students go out tell others
about it. This is the difference between ‘teacher taught me’ verses ‘I can do it’.
She indeed has an infectious (and contagious) smile and passion that are a perfect fit for her inspiring.
When I researched about Kiran’s work, I came to know that in India they took standardized tests, these
students scored highest in their district, which is evidence that this helps kids learn too. Because, Kiran
knows how to evoke positive inspiration into her students. I did like her focus and her intent to build a
very strong case for social change by “I can” and she did actually achieve what she wanted. She became
a master at it, and decided it and was time to infect the city with the “I can” virus. By heard this TED talk,
I believe that Kiran Sethi is a psychological genius that knows how to successfully persuade the minds of
children to act on what they care about. She has identified India’s problems and will fight to end them.
She taught her students to take local issues in their own hands, lead other young people and even
educate their parents. We can see in her video, how people are influenced from her work. This is a
positive aspect of her work which makes her to be proud.
She has introduced psychological theories that understand a mindsett of children and know how to
motivate them to learn. One of the main-point of her TED talk is “if education is embedded in a real
world context- blurring the boundaries between school and life”. It starts with believing in kids: when
adults believe in children and say, “you can”, then they will. As I belong to India, I can realize how she
works hard to lead a positive change in Indian society. She made everyone realize that how “I can” bug
makes a big impact in designing solutions to diverse range of social problems around. As a teacher, after
getting inspired I will inculcate these values into my students to turn them into responsible citizens.
I believe that education should be based on this criteria, not only getting a grades and degree. This is the
responsibility of the teacher to facilitate the learners to improve their society and even educate their
parents to know the value of real education.
By her talk I realized, teaching-learning process is based on “I can” that incorporates service with
learning to show children the empowering quality of knowledge. This style of learning correlates with
better performance in school.
Imagine what the world of education might be like if her philosophies where put into action
everywhere? Kiranbir Sethi is a visionary and her bravery to put her passion to the test is very
admirable. I hope everyone who hears her TED talk finds her ideas contagious.